Causality between Output and Income Inequality across U.S. States: Evidence from a Heterogeneous Mixed Panel Approach
AbstractIn this paper, we investigate the causal relationship between output, proxied by personal income, and income inequality in a panel data of 48 states from 1929 to 2012. We employ the causality methodology proposed by Emirmahmutoglu and Kose (2011), as it incorporates possible slope heterogeneity and cross-sectional dependence in a multivariate panel. Evidence of bi-directional causal relationship exists for several inequality measures -- the Atkinson Index, Gini Coefficient, the Relative Mean Deviation, Theil’s entropy Index and Top 10% -- but no evidence of the causal relationship for the Top 1 % measure. Also, this paper finds state-specific causal relationships between personal income and inequality.